This guide offers information on the mental health considerations, healthcare, beliefs, customs, language and history of Somalia. The Federal Republic of Somalia has endured turmoil for many decades, contributing to the current lack of a strong health infrastructure or integration of mental health services into mainstream healthcare services. Civil war and ongoing violence have caused complex trauma among many Somalis. While the first presidential election in many decades in 2012 is indicative of some progress in advancing human rights, there still exist violent forces working against establishing a peaceful democracy. The militant group Al-Shabaab continues violent altercations against civilians and the federal government, creating a hostile and unstable environment.