Evidence Database

Switchboard has developed a database of research studies to help refugee service providers in the U.S deliver evidence-based interventions. Studies are added on an ongoing basis. Most studies included in this database are published articles identified in the process of developing Switchboard Evidence Summaries. Use the search area to find content based on criteria like outcome area, intervention, publication year, population, and study type.

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Objective.The current study examines how aspects of the home literacy environment were related to Asian immigrant children’s early literacy skills.Design.One hundred and thirty-nine Asian immigrant families and their children (69 girls; mean age = 62.93 months; standard deviation = 3.82) were recruited from kindergarten classrooms at seven public elementary schools in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. Trained research […]

This paper reports the findings of a critical qualitative study on trauma-informed teaching of English as a second language (ESL) at Australian universities. Post-traumatic stress affects verbal learning, yet most ESL teachers do not receive training in trauma-informed teaching. The field has suffered from a dearth of empirical studies and absence of student voice. This […]

Museum educators and instructors of English as a Second Language (ESOL) at a community college in New York reflect on their experiences facilitating a program designed to enrich the language, cultural, and visual literacy skills of adult immigrant students. The CALTA21 program brought together three stakeholders, immigrant ESOL students, language instructors, and museum educators in […]

• This study examines an innovative two-generation ESL program within Head Start. • Participants learn both English language skills and about children’s development. • The paper examines the progress of parents and the perspectives of parents and staff. • ESL parents had high levels of attendance, completion, and English language advancement. • Focus group data […]

Purpose: There has been a significant increase in the number of immigrant families moving to rural communities across the United States. Yet limited research exists that explores relationships between immigrant families and schools in these communities. Rural school districts are often challenged by insufficient resources, expertise, and infrastructure to respond. Adult English as a second […]

This study explores the critical barriers to English language learning for Afghan refugee women in Australia. Using data from 23 individual interviews and five focus group discussions, these show that although the participants received formal support from the Australian Government, the majority still struggled to learn English effectively. A thematic analysis of the interview responses […]

Lack of proficiency in the language of the host country predicts distress among refugees, but many refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom have less than functional English. This study examined how learning English affected refugees’ and asylum seekers’ lives, particularly their emotional wellbeing, to explore what factors, particularly psychological ones, facilitated or impeded […]

Second language (L2) writing researchers have demonstrated that bilingual writers draw on their native language to fulfill task requirements. A growing number of individuals are learning a language beyond their second, and, despite an increased interest in third/additional language (L3/Ln) development, few empirical studies have considered writing practices from a plurilingual lens. To fill this […]

The research presented in this article examines the English language and print literacy development of adolescent refugee students with limited and interrupted formal education (SLIFE) aged 14 to 21. The aim of this research was to determine if and how teaching early reading strategies to secondary ESL/ELD teachers could improve students’ English language and literacy […]

This paper explores the experiences of practicing bilingual (English/Spanish, English/Portuguese, and English/Haitian Creole) and English as a Second Language teachers after completing a Bilingual Bicultural Education Certification program. It highlights how teachers defined success when working with their emergent bilingual students and names the barriers that teachers identified as preventing them from success. Using a […]