Numerous interventions to build welcoming and inclusive communities are available, with varying degrees of evidence of effectiveness.
- Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of structured, facilitated contact-based interventions and bystander interventions in reducing ethnic prejudice and improving well-being of people targeted by racism. Suggestive evidence specific to foreign-born groups is consistent with these findings.
- Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of child and youth programs in reducing prejudice toward outgroups in general. However, suggestive evidence specific to foreign-born groups finds mixed results.
- Moderate and suggestive evidence indicates that message framing impacts attitudes toward refugees and immigrants.
- Suggestive evidence indicates that employer-based and law enforcement interventions may promote welcoming and inclusive communities for immigrants.
- Suggestive evidence further indicates that intentional community efforts promote welcoming and inclusion.
The evidence has clear implications for practice and research.
- Contact-based and bystander interventions appear most promising for building welcoming and inclusive communities.
- Child and youth interventions appear promising but require further evaluation.
- Messaging that draws on race-neutral shared values, such as fairness and prosperity for all, can create support for welcoming and inclusion.
- Employers, law enforcement, and other community actors should be engaged in welcoming and inclusion coalitions.