FILES



Summary PDF: What works to build welcoming and inclusive communities?

M&E | Track Resource Download

   Community Engagement

SHARE

What works to build welcoming and inclusive communities?

Numerous interventions to build welcoming and inclusive communities are available, with varying degrees of evidence of effectiveness.

  • Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of structured, facilitated contact-based interventions and bystander interventions in reducing ethnic prejudice and improving well-being of people targeted by racism. Suggestive evidence specific to foreign-born groups is consistent with these findings.
  • Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of child and youth programs in reducing prejudice toward outgroups in general. However, suggestive evidence specific to foreign-born groups finds mixed results.
  • Moderate and suggestive evidence indicates that message framing impacts attitudes toward refugees and immigrants.
  • Suggestive evidence indicates that employer-based and law enforcement interventions may promote welcoming and inclusive communities for immigrants.
  • Suggestive evidence further indicates that intentional community efforts promote welcoming and inclusion.

 

The evidence has clear implications for practice and research.

  • Contact-based and bystander interventions appear most promising for building welcoming and inclusive communities.
  • Child and youth interventions appear promising but require further evaluation.
  • Messaging that draws on race-neutral shared values, such as fairness and prosperity for all, can create support for welcoming and inclusion.
  • Employers, law enforcement, and other community actors should be engaged in welcoming and inclusion coalitions.

Post TitleStrength of EvidenceType of StudyDirection of Evidence
Explaining opposition to refugee resettlement: The role of NIMBYism and perceived threatsModerateImpact evaluationInconclusive or mixed impact
Improving children’s attitudes toward refugees: An evaluation of a school-based multicultural curriculum and an anti-racist interventionSuggestiveSuggestive evidenceInconclusive or mixed impact
Preventing prejudice and improving intergroup attitudes: A meta-analysis of child and adolescent training programsStrongMeta-analysisPositive impact
Putting Yourself in Other People’s Shoes: The use of Forum theatre to explore refugee and homeless issues in schoolsSuggestiveSuggestive evidenceInconclusive or mixed impact
Understanding public attitudes towards refugees and migrantsSuggestiveLiterature reviewInconclusive or mixed impact
Engaging employers in immigrant integrationSuggestiveLiterature reviewPositive impact
Social-developmental perspective on intergroup attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in childhood and adolescence: A roadmap from theory to practice for an inclusive societySuggestiveLiterature synthesisInconclusive or mixed impact
Can we really reduce ethnic prejudice outside the lab? A meta-analysis of direct and indirect contact interventionsStrongMeta-analysisPositive impact
Valuing immigration: How frame elements contribute to effective communicationsModerateImpact evaluationInconclusive or mixed impact
Bystander anti-racism: A review of the literatureStrongSystematic reviewPositive impact
Building welcome from the ground up: European small and rural communities engaging in refugee resettlementSuggestiveSuggestive evidencePositive impact
Can we make a difference? Prejudice towards asylum seekers in Australia and the effectiveness of antiprejudice interventionsSuggestiveLiterature synthesisPositive impact
Building the New American Community: Newcomer integration and inclusion experiences in non-traditional gateway citiesSuggestiveSuggestive evidencePositive impact
Improving outgroup attitudes in schools: A meta-analytic reviewStrongMeta-analysisPositive impact
Palm Beach County, Florida Smart Policing Initiative: Increasing Police Legitimacy and Reducing Victimization in Immigrant CommunitiesSuggestiveSuggestive evidencePositive impact

Studies included in the database focused on high-income or upper middle-income countries, including but not limited to the United States. Studies included must have been published since 2000. To identify evidence related to emergency preparedness among refugees, we searched the following websites and databases using the following population, methodology, and target intervention terms:

Websites and Databases Population Terms Methodology Terms Target Problem Terms
Campbell Collaboration
Cochrane Collaboration
Mathematica Policy Research
Urban Institute
Migration Policy Institute
ASSIA
Social Services Abstracts
PsycInfo
Sociological Abstracts
refugee
OR
immigrant
OR
“unaccompanied minor”
OR
asylee
OR
“temporary protected status”
OR
“victims of traffick*”
OR
“traffick* victims”
OR
T-Visa
OR
U-Visa
OR
Cuban
OR
Haitian
OR
Amerasian
evaluation
OR
impact
OR
program
OR
intervention
OR
policy
OR
project
OR
train*
OR
workshop
OR
review
OR
meta-analysis
OR
synthesis
discrimination
OR
racis*
OR
prejudice
OR
anti-immigrant
OR
xenophobi*
OR
nativis*
OR
inclusi*
OR
welcoming
OR
multicultural
OR
divers*
OR
“shared community”

For databases or websites that permitted only basic searches, free-text terms and limited term combinations were selected out of the lists above, and all resultant studies were reviewed for relevance. Conversely, for databases or websites with advanced search capability, we made use of relevant filters available. All search terms were searched in the title and abstract fields only in order to exclude studies that made only passing mention of the topic under consideration.

After initial screening, Switchboard evidence mapping is prioritized as follows: First priority is given to meta-analyses and systematic reviews, followed by individual impact evaluations when no meta-analyses or systematic reviews are available. Evaluations that are rated as impact evidence are considered before those rated as suggestive, with the latter only being included for outcomes where no evidence is available from the former.