This backgrounder contains historical, political, and cultural information to cultivate a general understanding of Afghans arriving in the U.S. The ongoing crisis in Afghanistan is complex and spans decades. CORE produced this backgrounder to aid U.S. Resettlement Agencies (RAs) and their local affiliates in providing culturally appropriate Cultural Orientations (CO) and other services to newly arrived Afghans. The information provided is intended as guidance and does not represent the needs and challenges of all Afghans. As such, resettlement staff are encouraged to adapt their services as appropriate. Information in this document draws on a variety of trusted resources, including, but not limited to, scholarly books and articles and reports and websites of trusted research organizations. See the Bibliography for a list of resources and information about the authors.