This systematic review explored ways in which doctoral-level clinical and counseling psychology graduate students are trained to build competency in self-care. The study aimed to examine which research methodologies have been utilized to examine self-care training, techniques and content of self-care training, and outcomes and effectiveness of self-care training methods. Twenty-one self-care competency training articles were identified. Results from the systematic review revealed most studies to date are quantitative (47.62%), followed by nonempirical (23.81%), mixed methods (14.29%), and qualitative (14.29%). Among quantitative studies, cross-sectional designs were most common (50%). Five themes of self-care training content were identified: culture of self-care, personal therapy, intervention, workbook/training tool, and mentorship/supervision. Five true outcome studies were identified and included outcomes such as frequency of use of self-care behaviors, self-care competency, wellness, stress, and mindfulness. Preliminary foundational evidence for effectiveness of self-care training methods is discussed. Recommendations are made for future research as well as suggestions at the policy level that incorporate several methods to train the self-care competency across training programs. Trainees and clinicians who practice self-care may then be able to avoid common pitfalls such as burnout, stress, and distress, and thereby function better in their roles as psychologists.
An important policy initiative implemented for the past 40 years in Canada, refugee private sponsorship has attracted international attention as Europe continues to grapple with